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  1. Force Measurement IMADA
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Basic Principle of Force Measurement

Force

Force

In physics, force (power) is an action that "deforms an object" or "changes the velocity of an object", and is a physical quantity that expresses the magnitude of that action, defined as mass (m) x acceleration (a) = force (F). As shown in the video pages of each test on this website, there are several types of force, such as tension, compression, shear, bending, and friction, and the magnitude of these forces is expressed in units of "N (Newton)".In our daily lives, forces are generated everywhere. Force is generated not only in lifting and pulling things, but also in the act of chewing food and turning doorknobs, as you may be very familiar with. There is also a well-known force that is at work not only when we are moving, but also when we are at rest. That is gravity. Gravity, caused by the earth's gravitational pull and rotation, allows us to move on the earth in contact with the ground.The acceleration of gravity on the earth varies from place to place, but the internationally agreed standard value is g = 9.80665 m/s2. For example, the magnitude of the force on an object of 1 kg mass at rest is calculated to be 1 (kg) x 9.8 (m/s2) = 9.8 (N), which is about 9.8 N.

Torque

Torque

Torque is "the magnitude of force, torsional moment (turning or twisting force) that acts on an object when it rotates". Torque is the result of force multiplied by distance, and is defined as force (F) x distance (L) = torque (N), and the unit of torque is expressed in "N-m (Newton meter)".The greater the distance to the point of force action, the greater the torque will be for the same amount of force (F). This is the same as the "The Principle of Leverage". For example, when turning a door handle to open a door, the longer the handle, the easier it is to open the door. If the same torque is required, a longer distance (L) from the point of action will result in a smaller force (F).We perform actions that generate torque on a daily basis, such as opening the lid of a plastic bottle or turning the dial of a car air conditioner. Therefore, on site of product development and quality control of companies, measurement of torque values is commonly used as one indicator to check the usability and safety of products.Click here for torque gauges >

Measurement Act

Measurement Act

According to the Measurement Act that came into effect on November 1, 1993, Force, Moment of Force, Pressure, and Stress cannot be used for transactions or certifications other than those based on the SI unit system (International System of Units) in Table 1 as legal measurement units.Under the current Measurement Law, the use of newton (N)" as a unit of force is mandatory in Japan. Measuring instruments with a scale other than the legal measurement units for expressing the conditions shown in Table 1 must not be sold or displayed for sale in Japan for the purpose of use in Japan.This explains why IMADA sells products with legal unit scales to Japan.Table 1 Excerpt from "Measurement Units pertaining to SI Units" (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)Quantity of state ofphysical phenomenaSymbolMeasurement UnitForceNNewtonMoment of forceN・mNewton meterPressurePa, N/m2, barPascal, Newton per square meter, and BarStressPa, N/m2Pascal, Newton per square meterViscosityPa・s, N・s/m2Pascal second, Newton second per square meter*The conversion with conventional units of force is 1 kgf = 9.80665 N.

How to Measure Force?

How to Measure Force?

Force measurement is to express the force (force = load) generated by contact using a measuring equipment. Since there are several types of forces depending on the direction of the applied force and other factors, measurement is performed in a manner corresponding to each type.As described in the "Force (Power)" section, force is generated in various situations in our daily lives, so force values are measured as one of the indicators to check the usability, safety, and taste of products and items that we come in contact with in our daily lives. For example, if the force value of the packaging material used to break a bag of pastries is too high, it requires a lot of force to break it, making it inconvenient to eat, while if it is too low, it can be easily broken, increasing the risk of damage during transportation. Also, the bread itself can be measured by measuring the force value when it is pressed, and the texture, such as "fluffy" or "chunky", can be seen in the numerical values.A force gauge is a typical measuring device for such force measurement. A force gauge is a tool to quantify and express the generated force in an appropriate unit. By using force gauges together with attachments or stands that are appropriate for the force to be measured, various forces such as mechanical strength due to breakage or deformation of materials, sensation of hardness or softness, operating force and functionality of switches and brakes, etc. can be measured as data. While using such measuring equipment, force measurement is widely used mainly in quality control, research and development, training, and other situations.Click here for force gauges >>

Description of Calibration

Description of Calibration

Calibration refers to the process of determining the relationship between the value indicated by a measuring equipment and its true value, and correcting the scale.Just as a clock is checked for correctness using a time signal (standard time), measuring instruments must be periodically checked (calibrated) using standards and standard samples specified by national standards. Measuring equipment will always differ from ideal values depending on the environment in which they are used, how they are used, and how often they are measured. IMADA recommends periodic calibration of measuring instruments to maintain the accuracy of your measuring equipment and to ensure reliable measurements.

SOLUTIONS BY FORCE

Compression Test

Compression Test

Compression Test involves applying a pushing force to a test sample to measure the sample's properties or to obtain values required for sample deformation, and so on. This category includes following. : Hardness and Repulsion, which is measured by applying a predetermined force to the sample. : Operating Force, which is necessary to operate parts such as switches. : Folding and Bending Force, which indicates whether the sample is bent or deformed. : Pressure Resistance, which indicates whether the durability of packaging and other items meets standards. : Puncture and Insertion Force required to pierce a pin through a film or to insert a connector into an outlet, and so on. : Pinching and Gripping Force, which measure not only pushing force from above but also lateral force such as pinching with tweezers, are also introduced in the solution videos.

Tension Test

Tension Test

Tension Test is used to evaluate material properties such as yield point by applying a pulling force to a sample, or to measure tension strength to confirm the durability of a product. : Tensile strength is mainly used to determine the stiffness (strength) of the sample itself. : Joint strength is measured by applying a force in the direction of pulling apart two or more parts from the state where they are joined, and measuring the force until they do not break or break under a predetermined force. : Opening force represents the force to pull open a bottle lid, confectionary wrapper, and so on. : Starting Resistance force is the force required for the initial movement of a sample.

Compression-Tension Test

Compression-Tension Test

Compression-Tension test, as the name implies, is the test in which forces in the compressive and tension directions are applied during the same test to evaluate their interaction characteristics. Tack test and Extraction/Insertion test are described in detail. : Tack test is one of the evaluation methods for adhesion and stickiness. The probe is pressed against the sample at a pre-set force value, and after a certain period of time, it is pulled away from the sample to measure the force at which the probe is removed from the sample. : Extraction/Insertion test measures the resistance force (exertion/insertion force) when the probe is inserted or extracted. The force you may feel when you insert (or pull out) USB memory or SD card into an electronic device such as PC is an obvious example. The change of resistance is measured by repeatedly inserting and removing the device.

Texture Test

Texture Test

Texture Test analyzes texture, one element of food taste, from various perspectives, and evaluates its characteristics numerically. In addition to measurements based on texture profiles and complying standards, the following measurements can be performed. : In the Hardness/Elasticity aspect, the texture of meat and confectionery is evaluated in terms of repulsive force, and the breakability of samples is evaluated in the three-point bending test. : In the Cutting Resistance aspect, you can view a video showing the force value of cutting noodles and the firmness of boiled noodles, assuming the force required to bite through the food with teeth. : In the Stickiness and Smoothness aspect, the stickiness is measured by the resistance force when the probe is pushed into ketchup or other food and subsequently pulled up.

Torque Test

Torque Test

Torque Test evaluates changes in characteristics by applying a rotating force (torque) in the direction of turning or twisting a sample. Torque testers or handheld torque measuring instruments are used according to the sample. In addition to the torque value, the relationship between the torque value and rotation angle can be analyzed graphically. The following videos show the measurement of turning force, which is necessary to loosen screws coated with anti-looseness material, operating force, which is used to evaluate the moderation (click) of air conditioner knobs, and opening force, which is used to open PET bottle lids by turning them.

Peel Test

Peel Test

Peel Test is a test to characterize the force or process required to pull off a welded or bonded sample. 45° peel, 90° peel, 180° peel, and T-type peel are frequently used. Peeling force is the force required to peel adhesive tape, heat-sealed packaging film, jelly cup container lids, and so on. Peel force may be measured as a peak value, average value, or quantified together with peel distance (displacement value). In addition to the videos using a peel tester specialized for peel test, we also introduce peel test videos using a versatile vertical test stand and a force gauge with attachments suitable for various types of peel tests and samples.

Friction Test

Friction Test

Friction Test is a test to measure the Coefficient of Friction based on resistance force (friction force) generated when a weight is placed on a sample and pulled or moved between two different types of samples. Usually both kinetic and static Coefficient of Friction are measured. The properties of paper, film, and other materials are often determined by industry standards, and examples of measurements that comply with these standards are also presented. In addition, using a pen and paper as a sample, it is possible to quantify and check the smoothness of the pen, which is one element of the writing comfort of a pen. In this measurement, dedicated software that automatically calculates the coefficients of kinetic and static friction can be used to increase the efficiency and convenience of the measurement.

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